COULD it be that parents typically receive advice about their babies’ sleep which doesn’t improve night waking, undermines breastfeeding, worsens sleep distress for the whole family, and even places certain vulnerable babies at increased risk of behavioural and developmental problems in later childhood?

Right now, given the widespread promotion of sleep training by our maternal and child health services and infant sleep businesses, daring to ask this question may be construed as outrageous, even dangerous.

The belief that we need to entrain the biology of an infant’s sleep through extinction or graduated extinction methods in order to make life manageable for mothers (see Table) arose in the 1950s and 1960s, when the new psychology of behaviourism (now known as the “first wave of behaviourism”) swept the English-speaking world. First wave behaviourism was quickly adopted in the care of mothers and babies, at a time when easy, workable breastfeeding was in demise.

I was obliged to study “mothercraft” as a Year 9 Queensland schoolgirl in the 1970s, where we drew clocks illustrating the 4-hourly feed routine, and learned the same first wave behavioural principles that characterise sleep training today:

“Good sleeping habits should begin in the earliest months of life, for habits learnt in babyhood are likely to last into childhood.

“So much sleep is needed because his body is growing quickly and his brain is developing very fast and his nervous system develops best when he is asleep. If he does not have sufficient sleep and rest, he will not grow so well, he will be nervous and fretful, and when overtired will not eat his meals well.

“Some form of routine is good for the baby because …. good habits are formed which will last him all his life. His nervous system develops best in calm, unchanging surroundings …

“Do not play or talk to the baby … when he is supposed to be going to sleep. Do not awaken the baby to show him to visitors.”

Queensland Maternal and Child Welfare Service school handouts, 1974

With the rise of the evidence-based medicine movement from the 1990s, this government-sponsored approach to infant sleep was picked up as a researchable package, and subsequently promoted as evidence-based.

But does the research really prove sleep training’s efficacy?

Senior figures continue to argue forcefully that it does, despite the failure of large randomised controlled trials to back these claims (here, here and here), and despite systematic reviews showing no improvement in night waking, nor reliable impact on maternal mental health (here, here, here and here). Parents continue to be warned that their child is at risk of poorer sleep and cognitive development if they allow “bad sleep habits” to persist, yet large studies fail to show that sleep training improves sleep habits in later childhood, or that longer sleep durations are linked with improved developmental outcomes (here, here and here). Many parents do not want to use first wave behavioural approaches, but are led to believe it’s necessary for their own mental health and for their baby’s best outcomes.

Over the past decade, sleep training programs have been wrapped in the language of “responsive parenting”, “secure attachment” and “gentleness”. These words acknowledge the importance of responding to the baby’s cues for secure attachment and optimal brain development: few health professionals recommend leaving infants alone to cry for indefinite periods these days. But parents soon discover that these sleep programs nevertheless promote patterns of not responding directly to, or ignoring, various baby cues over and over throughout the day and night (see Table), resulting in parent–baby communication confusion.

The UK has a cultural tendency to delay responses to the baby from birth. London newborns whose parents practice delayed responses cry for about half an hour in the night at 2 weeks of age, with a greater chance of a 5-hour block of uninterrupted sleep at night by 3 months of age. But this occurs in the context of the worst breastfeeding rate in the world. London babies also cry twice as much as those of Copenhagen parents, who have high breastfeeding rates and a cultural tendency to more responsive care (here and here). Both not breastfeeding and cry–fuss problems are linked with increased risk of postnatal depression.

In the meantime, sleep training ignores underlying factors that lead to excessive night waking. First wave behavioural strategies may worsen night waking over time, due to disruption of the circadian clock caused by an emphasis on long daytime naps (here and here). Sleep training not only fails to identify those breastfeeding problems, which commonly result in excessive night waking in the first months of life, but worse, it undermines breastfeeding success due to feed spacing.

In my 30 years of general practice experience, a great deal of iatrogenic anxiety and distress results from first wave behavioural advice in infancy. This heightened sleep anxiety is predicted by the adult sleep science, which tells us that a focus on sleep worsens sleep.

But most health research originates in tertiary settings, or is driven by career researchers in university settings, and does not translate into clinical practice in the community. Moreover, as argued by John Ioannidis, Professor of Medicine at Stanford University, published research findings are often false; interpretative biases affect even systematic reviews. The Open Science Collaboration claims that two-thirds of published research in the psychological sciences is unreliable. I mention these concerns not to devalue our scientific endeavours, but to emphasise the importance of an open mind and vigorous debate.

There is a link between sleep problems in infancy and sleep and behavioural problems in later childhood in a subgroup of individuals (here and here), and also evidence that sleep architecture changes rapidly in the first few months of life. These findings are assumed to prove that families should sleep train in the first months to prevent “bad sleep habits” and impaired capacity to learn in later childhood. But the link between unsettled behaviour in the first months and sleep and behavioural problems in later childhood could also be explained by the early application of first wave behavioural approaches, which are culturally mainstreamed and which disrupt parent–baby communication, altering developmental trajectories and placing susceptible individuals at risk (here and here). The exquisite neuroplasticity of the first months of life equally suggests that this may be a particularly risky time in which to attempt sleep training.

Leading primary care researcher Professor Trisha Greenhalgh explores the impact of research rhetoric on policy. When sleep training advocates claim that their programs “increase sleep”, they are illustrating the power of research rhetoric. Sleep training helps a baby under 6 months of age lie in the cot without signalling for an extra half an hour at night. But parents commence sleep training because they are led to believe it will decrease the frequency of night waking, which is most often not the case (here, here, here and here).

We experience the power of research rhetoric when a single, methodologically flawed study concerning first wave behavioural interventions for infants of average age 11 months makes the international news, alongside photos of newborns and the headline Controlled crying not emotionally harmful to babies – and then appears as an app for parents (here and here). “Evidence-based” has become, as Professor Ioannadis argues, a marketable brand, and we see this operating in the profitable infant sleep industry.

A joint Mayo Clinic and Stanford University team argue that when a “Big Idea” has been found to fail in the research despite extensive investigation, proponents often continue to call for improved methodologies and more financial investment, when a resetting of the focus and innovation is required. According to the Open Science Collaboration, in the face of discredited findings, an ideological response “discount[s] the arguments, discredit[s] the sources, and proceed[s] merrily along”. This is happening in the world of infant sleep research.

Our Neuroprotective Developmental Care approach to parent–baby sleep (the Possums Sleep Program) has been developed in the severely underfunded and devalued backwaters of clinical primary care research. It applies a generalist’s lens to integrate the neuroscience, psychological attachment, third wave behaviourism, lactation science, adult sleep science and evolutionary biology literatures (here, and here).

In the same way that we’ve flipped our approach to infant allergy, recognising that the widespread prescription of maternal elimination diets for unsettled behaviour in breastfeeding babies over the past 2 decades has actually predisposed our children to allergy, or in the same way we’ve flipped our approach to obesity, recognising that calorie-reduction diets may actually increase weight gain, it’s time to flip our approach to parent–baby sleep.

At the very least, parents should have the opportunity to choose between options when they come seeking help for baby sleep problems.

Dr Pamela Douglas is a general practitioner with special clinical and research interests in early life care. She is Medical Director of the non-profit Possums Clinic, Brisbane; an Associate Professor (Adjunct) with the Maternity Newborn and Families Research Centre MHIQ, Griffith University; and a senior lecturer with the Discipline of General Practice, The University of Queensland. She is also author of The Discontented Little Baby Book.


First wave behavioural belief First wave behavioural strategy Potential communication confusion
Teaching self-settling improves infant sleep
Don’t let baby fall asleep with breastfeed or bottle-feed Ignores powerful biological cues
Put baby down in cot drowsy but awake Baby cries due to low sensory environment
Create sleep associations with cot, white noise, swaddling, music, low sensory environment Baby develops negative associations with sleep place and rituals
Sleep in quiet dark room during day
Feed-play-sleep cycles make life more manageable for parents
Don’t let baby fall asleep with breastfeed or bottle-feed Ignores powerful biological cues
Put baby down in cot drowsy but awake Baby cries due to low sensory environment
Space out feeds Undermines breastfeeding success
Baby needs plenty of sleep for optimal brain development
Achieve “second sleep cycle” during daytime naps Baby doesn’t need this much sleep resulting in disrupted circadian clock
Sleep routines with estimates of time awake and ideal duration of sleep Baby doesn’t need this much sleep resulting in disrupted circadian clock
Mustn’t let baby get overtired (sleep breeds sleep)
Prescribed list of “tired cues” Disempowers parents (baby may not be cuing tiredness)
Put baby down at first “tired cue” Baby doesn’t need this much sleep resulting in disrupted circadian clock
Put baby to bed early at night (6–7pm) Baby doesn’t need this much sleep resulting in disrupted circadian clock
Mustn’t let baby get overstimulated
Baby may be cuing need for richer sensory nourishment, not tiredness
Baby who grizzles and cries is resisting sleep Baby may be cuing need for richer sensory nourishment, not tiredness


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Sleep training for babies is outdated and not supported by evidence
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  • Agree (15%, 31 Votes)
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  • Disagree (5%, 10 Votes)
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Total Voters: 208

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11 thoughts on “Babies and sleep: a matter of choice

  1. Alicia Thornton says:

    A well referenced article obviously written from the vantage point of lots of experience and interest. I agree with Brenda Nelson though, that I’m left at the end not quite knowing what Dr Douglas’ recommendations are (although I am trying to get access to her quoted article “Optimizing parent-infant sleep from birth to 6 months: a new paradigm.” which will hopefully shed some light!).

    I would caution that like any ‘condition’ that has many possible treatments, the myriad of infant-sleep approaches is probably because there is no one solution for every family, but that each does work for some and it’s a matter of finding the right one for the right family. Certainly ‘do not harm’ should be the first mandate. However the benefit of achieving uninterrupted night time sleep in infants older than 4-6 weeks old is tremendous for the whole family’s relationships, functioning, engagement and mental health. Achieving evidence-based cause-and-effect associations in terms of an infant sleep strategy leading to better sleep, behavioural, social and developmental outcomes in childhood or adulthood is difficult (if not impossible)! Nevertheless the immediate beneficial effect of an infant sleeping predictably and nourishingly is logical and should not be underestimated for both the child’s and the families’ wellbeing.

    Anecdotally speaking, as a mother of two young children, my husband and I were trained in a parenting approach during my first pregnancy focused on feeding, sleeping, identifying baby cues and adjusting to life as parents in the first 6 months (Preparation for Parenting). We found the techniques so useful that we have gone on to lead many other families from diverse backgrounds in the same approach. Of the 20 babies in these families (despite some with various mild medical conditions) all have slept uninterrupted through the night (6-10 hours) by 4-6 months of age, have been settled and well attached, nap predictably during the day with the flexibility to settle into the family’s routing (whatever that may be) and can self-settle to sleep. Only one mother stopped breastfeeding before the age of 6 months (most continuing to 1-2 years, several despite significant breast-feeding issues). Most importantly the benefit of having both parents on the same page has been uniting for them in a time of huge adjustment in the first 4-6 weeks of a baby’s life, and has given a great role to dads as their partners adjust to breastfeeding and sleep deprivation in the early days. I’m not saying it’s the only way, just pointing out that not all sleep-training is harmful, ineffective or outdated, even if it’s not evidence-based.

  2. Brenda Nelson says:

    What a confusing, long article! I am left wondering what advice Dr Pamela Douglas actually gives to exhausted, stressed out parents whose baby cries for hours on end. I agree that the sleep industry may not present the ideal solution but it works for many. In my case, as a mother of 4 children, and a paediatrician, I find the best approach is to engage , as much as possible, in normal day time activities even when you are dead tired, not to focus too much on the sleep deprivation, but everyone has their limits and if sleep training helps, as it does for many, be thankful!

  3. Professor Dianna Kenny says:

    Thank you for talking sense about infant sleeping – something that I have also been trying to do – counter-balancing the insensitive baby sleep industry that is running amok in the homes of parents and newborns.


    See also, Kenny, D.T. (2013). Bringing up Baby: The Psychoanalytic Infant Comes of Age. London: Karnac.

    Professor Dianna Kenny
    The University of Sydney

  4. Sue Ieraci says:

    Infant care experts like the Tresillian and Karitane services have taught sleep-training methods to thousands of grateful families, saving many from exhaustion and possibly preventing worsening of post-natal depression. It’s not correct to say that these babies grow up to see adults as “unreliable and unresponsive”.

    It is this sort of emotive statement, like the comment made by Rosemary Taylor, based more on ideology than evidence, that can make families feel even more failure and guilt than they already do. That doesn’t help babies – or their families.

  5. Rosemary Taylor says:

    Brilliant article.
    I would want to add that “controlled crying” or not responding to babies’ cries when put to bed only teach babies that adults are unreliable and unresponsive!
    As for not feeding to sleep, why on earth make life more difficult for yourself?

  6. Sue Ieraci says:

    I agree with Dr Douglas that much of what has been pressed on tired, confused parents has been more based on ideology than evidence. I would caution, however, about the suggestion that making a baby fit into the family’s routine is somehow “unnatural” or harmful. Throughout history and in all cultures, childrearing practices have had to adapt to circumstances. If the family’s work is in the fields, the infant might be strapped to an adult’s back, or left with older children. If the family lives in the snow, the infant won’t be toilet-trained naked. It’s not intrinsically different to want to train a baby to sleep when the family does. Generations of babies have been raised by grandparents, nannies, other family members, in families rich and poor, urban and rural.

    The issue isnt whether it’s “natural” or not, but whether it causes more harm than the alternative. It’s about how the baby fits into a family unit where there may or may not be other children, and where both parents may aspire to have a balance of family life and work life. Within this context, families may also want to choose whether to breast or formula feed, accepting that even that, in our wealthy society, doesn’t make as much difference to long-term child health as we might want to believe (as opposed to the impoverished world, where clean water and poverty can lead to infection and malnutrition if formula is used).

    I admire clinicians who have the interest and commitment to support families, but I would also caution against adding to their stress and confusion by adding yet another thing for them to be worried about. Children who have loving, secure care, with carers who act broadly in the child’s best interests, will generally do just fine. Infant sleeping is just one stage in a life-long parenting journey.

  7. Anonymous says:

    I see sleep deprived mothers who have been to possums to only be told their baby is normal …
    One must look at ALL sides to the sleep debate and tangibly give these mothers some skills to improve their parenting journey

  8. Jennifer Hurrell RM IBCLC says:

    Great article. I only v wish more parents were given this info about how unscientific the extinction approach really is.

  9. Dr Kate Senior, Adelaide GP says:

    Dr Douglas and the Possums approach to cry-fuss problems is amazing and I now discuss this with all of my pregnant patients and new mums, and highly recommend her book The Discontented Little Baby (it’s my go-to baby shower gift now!)

  10. Anonymous says:

    Brilliant article- I hope its disseminated widely. Well done!

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